There has been some confusion (even included) on what is vulnerable to this error and what is not. Some people can recreate and some can not – so I think it's time to test this properly to see what versions and scenarios are affected by this error.
The table below is sorted by macOS version – I'm just trying 10.13.x here. (If you happen to be able to leak the password at 10.12.x, please let me know.) I also organize by disk format, since I think this is where most of the confusion comes from.
APFS encrypted volumes can be created at disk level and volume level and it really seems to make a difference. Please also try if you find (or can not find) the results in Unified Logs and / or install.log or the works (and God forbid anywhere else you may come across!). I also use the consistent "Erase" button as opposed to the "Partition" button.
If I'm missing a particular scenario that you think should be added, please let me know. If you disagree with the current findings ̵
I will update the spreadsheet below as needed.
For previously-related blogs, see here and here.